Plant Wellness Way EAM starts with risk investigation so the true cost consequence of equipment failure on your business is accurately known
Business risk identification is done first so you know what harm, wastes and losses you suffer when your operating plant and equipment fail
IONICS PROCESS 1 makes you gauge the total business-wide costs of equipment failure. The risk identification shows you when the costs of failure are unacceptable. You then need to eliminate the risks, or at the very least, put into place truly effective risk prevention.
PEW/PWW EAM Course Day 2 – Plant Wellness Way Processes Session 9 – Risk Identification
Start by Developing Situational Process Maps
Whether you are improving a work process or on an equipment item, the process map is a ‘picture’ of how a thing works. Drawing a process map of a situation lets you understand its workings and find the weaknesses in the process.
Plant Wellness Process 1 – Risk Identification | Draw the Process Map to See the ‘Chance of Success’
“Without tools to find exactly what they need to focus on, without evidence that high reliability is worthwhile, and without an achievable plan to deliver it, organisations will waste away.”
No Certainty; Risk Changes Unless Controlled
Making decisions involving risk without understanding both the likelihood of an incident occurring and the full cost of its consequences have ominous implications to a business. In situations involving risk it becomes necessary to do risk identification of the various scenarios that may happen and estimate their individual cost and probability of occurring.
Risk reflects the presence of ‘agents’ working uncoordinated within a system. The effects of these ‘independent agents’ move through the system in unknown ways, and the results of their uncoordinated, and most likely perfectly justifiable, efforts is to increase the risk. We now have another reason why chance reduction strategies are more successful than consequence reduction strategies in reducing long-term organisational risk – chance reduction strategies work on controlling the systems in a business. They align and coordinate masses of people and information, thereby removing the randomness of ‘independent agent’ influence which unwittingly act to increase the causes of failure and loss. Gradually and continually the chance reduction strategies act to align and organize the efforts of the mysterious ‘independent agents’ playing unscripted parts so the randomness of their actions and effects are reduced, and finally removed. Chance reduction strategies are the total opposite to consequence reduction strategies, which live with risk and failure as normal. Instead, chance reduction strategies forever reduce risk. Because they strike at the random behaviour of the ‘independent agents’ within a system they align people, decisions, actions and behaviours into an over-arching system for achieving organisational outcomes using a specific agreed approach. Chance-reduction strategies remove randomness and unplanned interactions from business systems.
Aim to Find the Optimal Risk/Reliability Balance
Defect Creation and Failure Initiation | Common Defect Management Strategies | Defect Elimination and Failure Prevention
This is a version of the DuPont Defect and Failure Creation Model. It shows that a business collects other people’s and the business-created errors, defects and failures. These then cause further problems to build-up in the organisation. The problems can become so numerous that they take extraordinary amounts of resources and time away from running the business
In response to the many problems, a business installs systems to handle them. These become the ‘way we do things around here’ and are seen as normal behaviour. In reality the business systems are correcting errors, defects and failures that should never have happened.
In the end DuPont developed dozens of procedures, guidelines and best practices to control the creation of defects. The 105 standards, guidelines and protocols documents they developed were:
Technology & Facilities Safety System documents : 9 off
Electrical System documents: 7 off
Fire and Explosion prevention documents: 8 off
Environmental Risk documents: 8 off
Product Stewardship documents: 7 off
Distribution Requirements documents: 5 off
Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene documents: 7 off
1. Maintenance and Reliability Systems – 5 off
2. Manufacturing Capacity – 5 off
3. Energy Optimization – 5 off
4. Facilities Infrastructure – 6 off
5. Mechanical Integrity – 4 off
6. Product Quality and Process Control – 7 off
1. Business Planning – 1 off
2. Facility Planning – 2 off
3. Project Planning – 2 off
4. Project Implementation – 3 off
5. Start-up and Initial Operations – 1 off
6. Value Improving Guidelines – 12 off
7. Contractor Effectiveness
8. Shutdown/Turnaround Practices
The Trouble with Accepting a Defect
Defects enter into organisations by the thousands a year unless the organisation has put up defenses. Once the problem is in your operation you have to deal with it. In the slide, a soft-foot defect has been accepted into the plant. To correct it now requires the use of shims to fill the gap. Though this solves the problem the shims have caused additional cost and work. They also represent additional operating risk to the equipment, since if they are lost it is highly likely the foot will be bolted down into the base frame without them, thereby producing a distorted and deformed machine. The parts within the machine will be deformed and highly stressed even without the machine working. The equipment will run, but because the parts’ material-of-construction are always highly stressed they will always fail faster.
By adding shims we may have stopped the frame deformation, but we have also reduced the reliability of the bolted connection. From what could have been a fastened connection series configuration of only five or six steps, the addition of the shims has turned it into a series arrangement of 10 or 11 components. Now there are many more things that can go wrong and eventually they will.
The best answer to the risk of defects entering your business, is to ensure they are stopped before they cross your border. Put into place the necessary methods and precautions that ensure only high quality, high accuracy work is in your machinery from the outset. If you must use shims never use more than two (2) together and make certain they are of material that does not compress or corrode in the local environment.
Challenge Yourself to IT5 Machine Health Standards
Equipment Process Maps Show Us Series Risk
PEW SOLUTION: Physics of Failure Causes of Atomic and Microstructure Stress
Operating stresses work on the atomic structure of a material. The loads and forces of operation are absorbed by the atoms and crystals of the material of construction. If the stresses in the atomic bonds are too great they break the bond. Where operating stresses are beyond the capacity of the material structure the structure fails. Once enough stress failures accumulate the item fails and a part breaks.
Equipment Risk Identification Table
Process Map the Job Activity to See Series Risk
Work Activity Risk Identification Table
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The PLANT WELLNESS WAY EAM TRAINING COURSE teaches you to use and master the Plant Wellness Way EAM methodology. Follow this link to read about Training for New Users in the Plant Wellness Way EAM Methodology for World Class Reliability.
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