The Plant Wellness Way methodology ensures companies continually do process risk elimination and thereby ensures they will get to operational excellence success
Remove all remaining operating risks through continual risk elimination so you remove the causes of problems and troubles in your operation
IONICS PROCESS 6 gets you to endlessly generate new ideas for continual risk elimination by continual improvement of your business, asset management, supply chain, operations, and maintenance process’ reliability.
PEW/PWW EAM Course Day 2 – Plant Wellness Way Processes Session 14 – Continual Risk Elimination
Plant Wellness Process 6 – Continual Improvement
Sumitomo Chemicals Failure Management Cycle
Sumitomo Chemicals Failure Prevention Cycle
PEW SOLUTION: Reliability Growth Cause Analysis: Creating Operational Reliability by Life Cycle Risk Reduction
Improved reliability has a cause. Just like a failure has a cause, so too is there a cause for improved reliability. The process maps of your business processes, the workflow diagrams of your operating procedures and the bills of materials for your equipment are the foundation documents for improving equipment reliability. They are used respectively to control the business processes, to control human error and to address limitations in materials of construction and parts’ health practices.
The Reliability Growth Cause Analysis (RGCA) uses team brainstorming to find ways to grow reliability in a business process or equipment part. It looks for what can be done to intentionally reduce stress and remove risk from a situation. A process map is drawn of the process, or work tasks, or for a machine. The map is used to identify every possible way to prevent failure and eliminate defects throughout the life cycle. Box by box, or part number by part number of a bill of materials, every identifiable way to remove and prevent stress, or to improve the working environment, or to eliminate risk to reliability, is identified. Details of the causes of reliability are listed in a spreadsheet, along with the required information.
Reliability Growth Cause Analysis of a Bearing
First, a list of known and possible inner race failures is written by the analysis team. Known inner race failures include a cracked race, a scoured and scratched race, a brinelled and indented race, a loose fitting race, a race suffering electrically arcing, and so on until the team has exhausted all failure modes known to its members. Possible failure modes are then imagined, and include a cracked race intentionally installed and a cracked race unknowingly installed. The next step is to ask of each failure mode how its cause can arise – how can the inner race be cracked? A cracked race can occur from excessive interference fit on the shaft, or a huge impact load, or the shaft is oval and the round race is forced out-of-shape, or a solid piece of material is trapped between the race and shaft during the fitting, or the shaft is heavily burred and the race is forced over the burr and is damaged in the installation process.
For the first cause noted of a cracked inner race, excessive interference fit, the team asks – “How is excessive shaft interference prevented?” This problem is one of incorrect tolerances between race and shaft. It is usually a manufacturing error of the shaft or the race. The team is now required to develop proactive measures to ensure a race is never fitted to an incorrectly made shaft, or an incorrectly made race is never fitted to a good shaft. One prevention is to micrometer the shaft and the race and check the fit matches the bearing manufacturer’s requirements for the model of bearing. Additional prevention is to confirm the model of bearing is correct for the service duty and operating temperatures. These checks become a procedural requirement written into the ACE 3T procedure for the job. But the team is charged with finding all cause of reliability, and much more can be done earlier in the life cycle to prevent this failure. These additional early life cycle preventive measures are listed in Table 18.2.
The team then continues with the next cause of how an inner race can be cracked – heavy impact – and develops preventive actions (heavy impacts can occur when a race is fitted to a shaft with hammer blows or overloaded in a press, or a loose race on the shaft rattles from side to side, or a badly aligned shaft causes the race to be cyclically loaded, or it suffers a huge start-up overload). The process continues for a shaft that is oval, for a solid piece of material trapped between race and shaft during the fitting, for a heavily burred shaft, and so on. With each preventive measure put into place and made standard practice through using ACE 3T procedures and workforce training, each part’s reliability grows.
Every RGCA performed applies to every similar situation, and the learning from one analysis is transferred to every other similar situation by updating all other applicable procedures. In this way RGCA applies Series Reliability Property 3, and rapidly improves every other like circumstance.
PWW SOLUTION: Add Reliability Improvements to Your PM10 Equipment Life Plan Table
This slide is an example of the PM 10 ‘ten year history plan’. The ten-year plan is not ten years into the future! It is only two years into the future but includes the previous eight years.
The PM 10 maintenance plan list all the equipment in a plant by tag number covering the period 1994 through to 2003. The maintenance histories of problems on a piece of equipment for the past eight years were also listed. A short note detailing the month of occurrence and the failure was made in the column of the year in which it happened. For this year, 2002, and the next, 2003, the spreadsheet listed what maintenance and modifications were going to be done on the equipment to address the problems.
By doing it that way it allows the effect of historical equipment problems to be put in perspective. If the faults have continued to occur their impact on the operation can be seen and a decision can be made to address the problem in some suitable fashion.
If modifications and changes done in the past were successful then the problem can be seen to have disappeared. By reviewing past history and its impact on the operation it would be easy to justify which issues to transfer into the PM-10 process.
This table is more than a plan! It is a strategy! A strategy to reduce the known production stoppages and to focus the maintenance effort.
Can you see how this would work? You know what has gone wrong with the equipment over the last eight years, it’s listed right there in front of you. You can see how effective the past practices, methods and solutions have been. From that you can wisely decide what to do over the next two years to prevent reoccurrence of problems.
Instead of writing the usual ‘blue sky’ 5 or 10 year maintenance plan that no one believes anyway, you only plan for the believable two years ahead. You write down exactly what can really be done in the foreseeable future to reduce or prevent the real problems.
The plan for the next two years would include proposed modifications, equipment replacements, new condition monitoring plans, etc.
Now that is a great way to make next year’s maintenance plan! It would be one that is totally defendable and fully justifiable to upper management because it is well thought out, rooted in getting the best return for your money and based on the important business requirements to continue in operation.
My suggestion to cover the period beyond the next two or three years (and only if it is necessary in your company), is to use the spreadsheet to make forecasts. Project ahead based on what you plan to do in the coming two to three years to fix the current problems. If you aren’t going to fix the problems then don’t assume less maintenance in the future. Remember that a forecast is not a plan! A forecast is a best-guess suggestion, often known as ‘blue sky dreaming’. A plan is a set of action steps that over time will produce a desired result. They are totally different to each other.
Case Study 1 – A Lifecycle Reliability Growth Cause Analysis (RGCA) Activity
Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA)
Root Cause Analysis
Improving existing plant performance, or reducing operating risk, requires the elimination of repeat failures or emerging failures. Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is undertaken as a search for the “Root Cause” of the problem. Effective RCA is really about seeking effective solutions that control the causes of problems. Like a detective we look for causes from the effects. Each cause produces the next effect. When we define a problem and begin looking for causes, we ask why of the effect, and answer with a cause. Effects become causes as we continue to ask why, and a cause and effect chain is established. The solution we select is the one that is attached to one of the causes that prevents the problem from recurring.
Understanding the cause and effect relationships of equipment and operational problems, is an essential part of an effective maintenance program. The best way to institutionalize RCA is to train all levels of an organisation, so that seeking effective solutions is applied at the workplace and capturing “good” failure data for analysis is a normal requirement.
Tools to Use During Equipment Failure RCFA
OVERVIEW OF THE RCA PROCESS
The method brings a team of 3 to 6 knowledgeable people together to investigate the failure using evidence left behind from the fault. The team brainstorms to find as many causes of the fault as possible. By using what evidence remained after the fault, and through discussions with people involved in the incident, all the non-contributing causes are removed and the contributing causes retained.
A fault tree is constructed starting with the final failure and progressively tracing each cause that led to the previous cause. This continues till the trail can be traced back no further. Each result of a cause must clearly flow from its predecessor (the one before it). If it is clear that a step is missing between causes it is added in and evidence looked for to support its presence.
Once the fault tree is completed and checked for logical flow the team then determines what changes to make to prevent the sequence of causes and consequences from again occurring.
The Event Tree Stages
Answer to a Question about The Event Tree Stages
What Chance have You to Find the Real Cause?
If you start with a failed item of plant which path led to failure if there are large numbers of causes of failure? A cause and effect tree for a centrifugal pump set could produce 553 different causes for a pump failure.
At Least Identify the Scientific Cause Sequence
How Precision Links to Asset Management
Asset Management: systematic and coordinated activities and practices through which an organization optimally manages its assets and asset systems, their associated performance, risks and expenditure over their life cycles for the purpose of achieving its organizational strategic plan
Precision Maintenance Prevents Failures
A bearing can fail for many reasons. When modelling failure curves we want them to represent how the part under investigation will behave in its machine and environment. That requires us to use failure data caused by the modes of failure for that part. Our data needs to be from the failure history of the part concerned. Only then can we be sure to have a mathematical model which reflect the life of that part.
If more than one failure mode is present we must hope that the patterns of failure recorded in the history of the part lets us identify the presence of multiple failure modes. Otherwise it may appear as if there is only one dominate reason for failure and we will chose an incomplete solution.
Know How to Create Equipment Health
Precision Maintenance Strategy and Methods Stop these Problems Destroying Reliability
PWW SOLUTION: Precision Maintenance of Plant, Equipment and Machinery is…
Precision Maintenance is a set of activities performed by the maintenance crew and operators that produce highly reliable machinery. It requires the achievement of very high standards and tolerances, combined with critical observation and assessment skills to identify and remove potential failures.
The ‘Fourteen Rules’ of Precision Maintenance listed on the slide produce equipment that is exactly as the OEM designed them to operate. This gives the item the maximum chance of running reliably for long periods of time.
PWW SOLUTION: Precision is a Vital Strategy and Serious Opportunity
The slide shows the reduction in maintenance costs that results when industrial equipment vibration is reduces to very low levels. When machines are installed with precision they fail much less often.
The table on the left was compiled by taking vibration measurements of a range of identical equipment at a large industrial site and then extracting the equipment’s maintenance costs spent in the previous year. It is clear that the lower the vibration levels in a machine, the less it cost to maintain. The same can be done by any operation to test the results for themselves.
The message is clear – low vibration leads to high reliability. This is achieved by setting the necessary standards that deliver low vibration and then specifying them in purchasing documents, testing they are done correctly and training the maintenance and operations ‘shopfloor’ people to work to those standards.
Precision Domain – A Powerful Business Case | Precision Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance together effectively reduces failure
When Precision Maintenance is applied there is definite improvement in equipment reliability.
Condition Monitor to Confirm Work Standard
PWW SOLUTION: Set and Meet Quality Standards for World Class Reliability
“Only world class standards can produce world class results.”
PWW Proactively Controls Equipment Health for Outstanding Equipment Reliability
Elements of Plant Wellness Asset Management
Plant and Equipment Wellness = Chance Reduction + Proactive Maintenance + Defect Elimination + Precision Systems + Process Step Value Contribution
Plant and Equipment Wellness Way is a more meaningful and clearer description of what is wanted for the future of business and commerce than is provided by the words ‘physical asset management’ or even ‘operational excellence’. It reflects the strong focus on defect and loss prevention that is the future of physical asset management and operational excellence and which this book promotes.
Like human wellness which is the process of developing and combining the physical, mental, emotional and spiritual parts of a person to create a sustainable, healthy, invigorating and satisfying life. Plant and Equipment Wellness is the process of developing and combining engineering assets (the physical factor), financial objectives (the mental factor), human resources (the emotional factor) and organisation culture (the spiritual factor) to produce sustainable, healthy, invigorating and satisfying equipment performance.
My thanks go to Peter Brown of Industrial Training Associates for his perceptive understanding of industry’s needs by suggesting the concept of ‘Plant and Equipment Wellness’ to me. Thanks also to Don Fitchett of www.BIN95.com for first introducing me to the deep insights provided by True Downtime Cost.
Plant and Equipment Wellness Defined
The vision for Engineering Asset Management and Operational Excellence (EAMOE) in future must incorporate the need for growing organizational productivity; for speed to address rapid market, community and environmental changes; it will need to ensure a relentless drive to remove causes of failures and boost equipment reliability; it will demand the introduction of new methods, technologies and tools to remove the need for specialists and superfluous management so that every operator has the skills and the access to what they need to optimise the use and performance of their plant and equipment.
But these ‘future musts’ of EAMOE will not be sufficient for the truly great companies. These companies will have fast, accurate means of identifying cost saving and waste reduction opportunities. They will deliver massive savings in reduced waste of all resources and achieve extreme efficiency and effectiveness in all business and operating processes. The outstanding businesses of the future will not have many operational problems to solve because their operating methods and business systems will identify risky issues early enough, and act quickly enough, to prevent them.
The progress in the development of industrial and enterprise asset management methods, technology and tools can be seen as the progress toward enlightenment and understanding of the requirements that deliver excellence in equipment design, use and care. The future of EAMOE is to make business decisions self-evident by providing the knowledge and deep understanding needed to be outstandingly efficient and effective. The EAMOE of the future will make it obvious to plant and equipment designers, operators and owners what are the excellent practices that deliver great performance and results.
What has been learnt in the few decades since EAMOE became a business philosophy is that to achieve its full beneficial potential requires strong commitment across the entire organisation to becoming more professional, more educated, more scientific and more master-craftsman-like (highly skilled and accurate). No more can anything be done without a clear understanding of exactly what to do and how to do it to world-class standards. The future for organisations that adopt EAMOE is changing to one where its people know the outcomes and consequences of their decisions and actions before they are made and where everyone is continually seeking how to do it better, always seeking how to do it better.
The Plant and Equipment Wellness concepts explained and explored in this book will move organisations rapidly and securely into a future where organisational change programs are done in six months and the drive for continuous improvement is embedded into the organisation as a natural part of doing business. Plant and Equipment Wellness is the simplest, least cost, least time consuming methodology of all those currently available to quickly achieve physical engineering asset management and operational excellence that delivers high productivity and low operating costs.
The new Industrial and Manufacturing Wellness book contains all the latest information, all the latest templates, and worked examples of how to design and build a Plant Wellness Way Enterprise Asset Management (PWWEAM) system-of-reliability. Get the book from its publisher, Industrial Press, and Amazon Books.
The PLANT WELLNESS WAY EAM TRAINING COURSE teaches you to use and master the Plant Wellness Way EAM methodology. Follow this link to read about Training for New Users in the Plant Wellness Way EAM Methodology for World Class Reliability.
You are welcome to go to the Plant Wellness Way Tutorials webpage and look at worked examples of Plant Wellness Way EAM techniques and read in-depth explanations of the latest version of many PWWEAM presentation slides.
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